By Bamberg P., Sternberg S.
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В книге в научно-популярной форме изложены основные способы решения логических задач: здравым рассуждением, при помощи исчисления высказываний, составлением таблиц и построением графов. Пособие содержит свыше ста задач для самостоятельного решения, на которые в конце книги приведены ответы и краткие указания.
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Additional resources for A Course in Mathematics for Students of Physics, vol. 1
Norm. Sup. 3 no. 41 (1924), 67–142.  ———, Sur l’it´eration des fonctions transcendantes enti`eres. Acta Math. 47 (1926), 337–370.  Goldberg, L. and Keen, L. A finiteness theorem for a dynamical class of entire functions. Ergodic Theory and Dynamical Systems 6 (1986), 183–192.  M. Herman, Sur la conjugasion diff´erentiable des diff´eomorphisms du cercle a` des rotations. Publ. Math. de IHES 49, (1979), 5–233.  G. Julia, Sur les substitutions rationnelles. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 165 (1917), 1098–1100.
In other words, Pfeiffer constructed a function S with small divisors. He remarked in his paper that he had received a helpful (but unspecified) suggestion from George David Birkhoff. Birkhoff was no doubt familiar with small divisors problems in celestial mechanics, and perhaps he gave Pfeiffer advice on treating them. Pfeiffer observed that he became interested in Schr¨oder equation via the lectures of another American mathematician, Edward Kasner,5 a founding member of the MAA who taught Pfeiffer at Columbia.
Sylvester . Although Kempe’s argument was incorrect, it nevertheless contains some important ideas that resurfaced in the eventual solution to the problem. Indeed, his error is somewhat subtle and his proof was regarded as correct by the mathematicians of the day. Before summarizing the main ideas of Kempe’s fallacious argument, we need a simple lemma. Lemma 1. Every map contains at least one country with at most five neighbors. Proof We use an important result of Leonhard Euler, who observed in 1750 that, for any polyhedron with F faces, V vertices, and E edges, F C V D E C 2: By projecting the polyhedron onto a plane we deduce that, for any map with C countries, P points of intersection, and L boundary lines, C C P D L C 2: Using Euler’s formula, we deduce that L Ä 3C 6: For, at least three lines meet at each of the P intersection points, so 2L 3P (the factor 2 arising since each line has two ends and is counted twice), and so P Ä 23 L; substituting this into Euler’s formula and rearranging gives the desired inequality.
A Course in Mathematics for Students of Physics, vol. 1 by Bamberg P., Sternberg S.